Harry Boland and Michael Collins: were their deaths connected?

photo of Harry Boland

Harry Boland

 

Harry Boland TD, a Volunteer since 1913, was a close friend and associate of Michael Collins; and, like him, a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (“IRB”) Supreme Council. He played a leading role in the War of Independence, and would have been expected to hold a Cabinet seat or other high office in the post-war government.

(Following are excerpts from the book “The Assassination of Michael Collins: What happened at Beal na mBlath?“)

Chances are about a million to one against there having been anything either “accidental”, “random”, or “natural” about the sudden death, within days of each other, of Michael Collins, Arthur Griffith, and Harry Boland…

Boland’s death took place in the very opening days of the Civil War. According to Deasy, it was attended by “mysterious circumstances” and “was another serious blow to the moderate wing” of the anti-Treaty side. That is, it drove another nail into the coffin of hopes for a swift reunification of Ireland’s victorious War of Independence army…

TDs are not to be shot  **

During the dreadful first week of civil war [Boland] was constantly moving between DeValera and Collins trying to patch up a truce.” And the Free State authorities were still pursuing a “policy of moderation” in “hopes of a negotiated settlement.”

On 17 July 1922, shortly before Boland’s death, the Provisional Government had made a unanimous decision “on advice from Collins“, not to arrest elected representatives, propagandists, nor “mere political suspects … except of course, those actually captured in arms.” The date of this resolution, particularly urged by Collins, was just days before the incident which took Boland’s life.

Official policy was in place: no arrests of TDs, nor of unarmed political opponents. Boland was unarmed when taken. This was never disputed by either side. Why then was a military manoeuvre mounted to seize him?

Collins’ well-known letter to Harry of 28 July explicitly states that he “cannot” bring himself to have his friend arrested.

Yet two days later, on the 30th, Boland was taken: apparently as part of an elaborately well-planned siege, which could not have been mounted without considerable advance preparation.

What happened is only discernible through a haze of conflicting reports. (A confusion which resonates disturbingly with the tangle of tales around Béal na mBláth.)

[ ** “TD” is the abbreviation for the Irish term “Teachta Dalá“, which means deputy to the Dáil, a member of the Irish national legislature: equivalent to a Member of Parliament (MP) in Britain, or Congressman in the USA.]

Read moreBook cover image - The Assassination of Michael Collins - What Happened at Béal na mBláth

The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?
by S M Sigerson

Paperback or Kindle edition here:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

All other e-reader formats:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Read reviews:

http://www.rabidreaders.com/2014/12/03/assassination-michael-collins-s-m-sigerson-2/

Or ask at your local book shop

Also see:
cover image - Harry Boland's Irish RevolutionHarry Boland’s Irish Revolution

by David Fitzpatrick

https://www.corkuniversitypress.com/Harry-Bolands-Irish-Revolution-p/9781859183861.htm

 

Related post at this blog: “Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins: were their deaths connected?

https://collinsassassination.wordpress.com/2015/08/12/arthur-griffith-…deaths-connected/

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The coverup of Michael Collins’ assassination continues

photo of Michael Collins courtesy of Collins Press

courtesy of Collins Press

Like myths, books can either illuminate facts, or obscure them.  In the run-up to the Centenaries of Ireland’s War of Independence (1919-1921) & Civil War (1922-1923), the battle of ideas has begun.
Are some new books part of the same old coverup? How to tell good books from other kinds? S M Sigerson, author of “The Assassination of Michael Coliins: What Happened at Béal na mBláth?” (and of this blog) asks and answers these questions; and talks about the experience of chronicling the death of Collins.

Writing about Michael Collins tends to fall into three categories: The first (and best) is by authors whose aim is to enable the public, and future historians, to better understand what happened: by providing information, perspective, analysis, and other investigative tools. Such authors present their own opinions on the case in this context, as opinions, while encouraging further research and critique.

The second category would be by authors whose chief purpose is to focus on their own particular theory of what happened; who aim to persuade us that their theory is the right one. Whether it is or not, they, too, often unearth valuable research and raise important issues.

Within the second is a third, more suspect group, such as often crops up where politics are concerned: written with intent to discredit an individual, a political movement, etc. Created, that is, in order to obscure the facts. These may come disguised, to attract an unsuspecting public: proclaiming themselves as fearless exposés; and/or masking their intent with dulcet language of objectivity, scientific method, etc.  Some have even come decorated by academic credentials from lofty institutions.

As we approach the 2022 Centenary of Michael Collins’ death, this third type of commentary has begun to rear its ugly head. Much in the style of “fake news” and outrageous fabrications with which powerful and dangerous elements have lately bombarded the public, from the highest places, such sprurious studies aim to create general confusion. Confusion which, in turn, disarms criticism and resistance. Resistance to … most questionable proceedings indeed.

Such works and the writers thereof, being otherwise beneath our notice, shall remain nameless here.

Writing about the death of Collins

What I here make public has, after a long and scrupulous inquiry, seemed to me evidently true … Whether it be so or no, I am content the reader should impartially examine.      – George Berkeley

This writer came to Michael Collins’ story with a mind as nearly completely open as could be found, in anyone who cares enough to write about it at all. Not having grown up in Ireland, there was no pressure of Civil War loyalties to either side, in my background.

Nor had I any preconception whatever as to how he died. At first, I accepted the sketchy standard version which appears in most biographies of him. As my interest and acquaintance with the topic grew deeper, I gradually became dissatisfied with that version. Initially, only a little dissatisfied; until at last I grew convinced that his death had not been adequately investigated; neither at the time it happened, nor subsequently by historians.

It also became clear that Collins’ end can only be discussed intelligently, with a working understanding of both sides in the Civil War. In my own writing, I sought to present both sides, in a style digestible not only for general readers, but also for enthusiasts who might sympathize with either the pro-Treaty or anti-Treaty viewpoints: trying to give equal time to both, and letting them speak for themselves in their own words, as much as possible.

It is the practice of some more cynical commentators (described above,) to attack anyone who tries to do so, as a dangerous, wild-eyed partisan; that is, anyone who does not participate in silencing one side of the discussion.

People in Ireland are well-used to this technique; with which they have been sadly acquainted ad nauseum throughout The Troubles of the 20th century; and in the surrounding debate, ever since.

S M Sigerson’s work, obviously written from the heart, is a valuable contribution to the literature on Michael Collins and should be available in any self-respecting Irish library.             – Tim Pat Coogan

I trust in the public, in future generations, and in the passage of time, to ultimately sort true from false, among conflicting claims about the life and death of Michael Collins.

I call for a full catalog and compendium of Collins’ own letters and writings, which are infinitely more valuable to history than anything that subsequent writers can say about him. Looking forward to the 2022 Centenary, I again urge all individuals and institutions holding such materials, to cooperate in realizing this, with speed.

I also repeat my call for an independent forensic examination of his remains; which could conclusively answer many points now debated in theory.

I encourage those with an interest to examine all writings about Michael Collins.
Then, you be the judge.

Read more:
The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?”
Book cover image - The Assassination of Michael Collins - What Happened at Béal na mBláth

by
S M Sigerson

Paperback or Kindle edition here:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

All other e-reader formats:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Read reviews:
http://www.rabidreaders.com/2014/12/03/assassination-michael-collins-s-m-sigerson-2/

Or ask at your local book shop

Also see:
“Studying the death of Michael Collins:
Deception, evasion, and perception”
www.academia.edu/34795377/Studying_the_death_of_Michael_Collins_1890_-_1922_.rtf

 

Martin McGuinness, Northern Ireland, & Michael Collins: the unfinished business of Irish independence

photo of Martin McGuinness

It was through the lessons of Collins’ life & death, that Former Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness, with his colleagues & community, survived to achieve so much: in a lifetime struggle to repair what happened to northern* Ireland, following Collins’ death.

 

photo of Michael Collins at a rally in Armagh 1921

Michael Collins in Armagh 1921

In 1922, Dublin’s fledgling independent government was headed by the representative for Armagh in northern Ireland: Michael Collins, TD.

What links Collins with Martin McGuinness’ generation of Irish statesmen? These excerpts from The Assassination of Michael Collins: What Happened at Beal na mBlath? explore their connections:

“The 26-county Republic of Ireland, and the 6-county Northern Ireland statelet, directly owe their existence, their institutional structures, and much of their history, to Michael Collins’ life and times; to the controversies which culminated in his death; and to the travesties which his death enabled.

… Before the ink on the Treaty was dry, even among smiles, handshakes, and agreements, Winston Churchill was funding, directing and protecting military aggression in Ulster (both on and off the record.) Michael Collins, not to be outdone, cooperated without hesitation in republican units’ response there…

On 1st and 2nd August 1922, Commander-in-Chief Collins met with northern [IRA] officers at Portobello Barracks in Dublin. He told them, “The civil war will be over in a few weeks and then we can resume in the north. You men will get intensive training.” Collins explained that, until the Civil War was resolved, IRA in the north would have to remain defensive and avoid engagements. A small, specially paid “Belfast Guard” would be created to protect Catholic areas from sectarian attacks. The Dublin government in the meantime would apply political pressure. Said Collins, “If that fails, the Treaty can go to hell, and we will start again.”

… Following British soldiers’ killing of two adolescent girls near the northern border, an outraged Collins wrote to WT Cosgrave:

I am forced to the conclusion that we have yet to fight the British in the northeast. We must by forceful action make them understand that we will not tolerate this carelessness with the lives of our people.

In other correspondence:

[The north] must be redeemed for Ireland, and we must keep striving in every way until that objective is achieved. The northeast must not be allowed to settle down in the feeling that it is a thing apart from the Irish nation.

Six counties implies coercion. South and east Down, south Armagh, Fermanagh and Tyrone will not come into Northern Ireland.

… Coogan … agrees that Collins’ policy on the North was “unwelcome to his Cabinet colleagues and of course to the British.” [That is,] Collins was serving on a Cabinet with men whose agenda for the future of Ireland was closer to the British, than to his own.

… [Then, in August 1922,] Arthur Griffith and Collins suddenly died within two weeks of each other. And with them, all hope of an amicable settlement with honor to the Civil War. All hope of merging anti-Treaty heroes from the War of Independence into the leadership of the Free State Army. All hope of continuing armed resistance against unionist pogroms in the north.

It was then that the Troubles for Northern Ireland began.

The spreading [Civil War], marked by the cessation of IRA operations in the north, was correctly interpreted by the unionist government and armed loyalism as effectively removing the threat of concerted assault on the northern state.” **

… That threat was more real and present than most people, (including many historians,) realize … A shooting war between Irish troops and their British / loyalist counterparts in the northeast flared up continually throughout 1922. It included both IRA guerrilla actions and Free State regulars, British troops and loyalist paramilitaries combined. It moved Churchill to call for defense preparations against a Dublin-sponsored invasion of Ulster. https://ansionnachfionn.com/2015/06/08/the-battle-of-pettigo-and-belleek-may-to-june-1922/

With Collins removed, subsequent Dublin governments were content, or reduced, to leave northern nationalists twisting in the wind.”

Dublin governments all too willing to “tolerate this carelessness with the lives of our people” and to allow the northeast “to settle down in the feeling that it is a thing apart from the Irish nation.” Until the north’s simmering apartheid regime exploded into thirty years of bloody conflict.

Would the north have been different, had Collins lived? Could Martin McGuinness have been born in a united 32-county Ireland? Could decades of mayhem and murder been avoided, had the appropriate governments and armies come to grips, in 1922?  photo of Martin McGuinness 1971

Could Collins, with his War of Independence army intact, have extended their victory throughout the north? With the aid of officers who, over Collins’ dead body, were later executed by the Dublin government of W T Cosgrave (founder of Finn Gael)?

Could the Troubles have been prevented, by Collins and company’s combination of political pressure from Dublin, plus sustained military response to British/loyalist violence in the north?

Ultimately, the story of Ulster is inseparable from the story of Michael Collins: who clearly saw, almost a hundred years ago, that peace might be won only at the cost of eventual armed conflict in the north; who perhaps died striving to make it possible for republican comrades to lay down their arms; and who died … as elected representative for the people of northern Ireland.

 

** Eamonn Phoenix Michael Collins – The Northern Question 1916-22

* “northern Ireland” is here used to refer to that region of the country, before partition; “Northern Ireland” (capitalized) refers to the statelet created by Partition.

Read more

“The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?”

by S M Sigerson

Book cover image - The Assassination of Michael Collins - What Happened at Béal na mBláth

Paperback or Kindle edition here:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

All other e-reader formats:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Read reviews:
http://www.rabidreaders.com/2014/12/03/assassination-michael-collins-s-m-sigerson-2/

Or ask at your local book shop

 

 

 

Arthur Griffith & Michael Collins: Were their deaths connected?

Photo of Arthur Griffith (1871-1922)

Arthur Griffith 1871-1922)

(The following is an excerpt from the book
“The Assassination of Michael Collins: What Happened at Béal na mBláth?”)

Griffith, the founder of Sinn Fein, is considered by many to have been the leading strategist of Ireland’s 20th century independence movement … After ages of continual battle against British imperialism, it was his genius for uniting Ireland’s internal divisions, which brought nationalism into a new, ultimately victorious phase …

… The chances seem astronomical against there having been anything either “accidental”, “random”, or “natural” about the sudden death, within days of each other, of Michael Collins, Arthur Griffith, and Harry Boland. Even in the dangerous environment of the Civil War, it would be about equivalent to being struck by lightening while holding a winning lottery ticket.

P S O’Hegerty quotes Griffith himself as saying, in their interview on June 30, “Of course, those fellows will assassinate Collins and myself. DeValera is responsible for this, for all of it. There would have been no trouble but for him.”

[The Cabinet “junta’s”] first step was to isolate Arthur Griffith … shortly before his death [P Moylett] found Griffith sitting alone with not even a secretary or typist available to him.  –  John M Feehan 

Collins, who was working intimately with Griffith on a daily basis at the time, by no means took his death so much for granted as historians have been willing to do. As shown in his personal correspondence:

The death of poor Mr Griffith was indeed a shock to us all, more so naturally to those of us who had been intimate with him, and who thought that his illness was a very slight thing indeed. We shall miss for many a day his cheerful presence and his wise counsel … He had sounder political judgement than any of us, and in this way we shall feel his absence very keenly. 

Although no bounding youth like the C-in-C, Griffith, at 51, was hardly decrepit. The negotiations with Britain, the deterioration of the country into Civil War, certainly would place a tremendous strain on anyone in his highly responsible position. Yet, lest we forget, since the founding of Sinn Fein in 1905, Griffith had lived in the eye of a political storm. His life had consisted of unending controversy, continual persecution; in the course of which he endured years of imprisonment, and constant threat of arrest or assassination.

Yet P S O’Hegerty was even more shocked at Griffith’s demise:

Until the last few months, he never lay in a sickbed. Whoever else died, we felt sure that it would not be Griffith – Griffith with the iron will, the iron constitution, the imperturbable nerve. Griffith, whom we all thought certain to live to be one hundred and write the epitaph of all of us.  Griffith, upon whom we all leaned and depended.

At the time of Griffith’s death, the Civil War was in full swing. A list appears to have issued from some quarter, indicating that members of the Dublin government were to be shot on sight at the first opportunity. Government Buildings became for Griffith and other ministers “a place of internment,” for their own safety…

As for DeValera, that ambitious statesman would never have the most potent political voice in Ireland, as long as Griffith still lived.  Nor would any post-war government led by Griffith ever be supine to British interests …

Read more
“The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?”
by S M Sigerson
Paperback or Kindle edition here:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

All other e-reader formats:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Read reviews:
http://www.rabidreaders.com/2014/12/03/assassination-michael-collins-s-m-sigerson-2/

OR ASK AT YOUR LOCAL BOOK SHOP

Assassination of Michael Collins COVER

Feallmharú Michael Collins: Cad a tharla ag Béal na mBláth?

This post is in the Irish language (Gaielge)
Read in English here:

https://collinsassassination.wordpress.com/2013/10/30/from-the-introd/

photo of Michael Collins speaking on a podium

Michael Collins

Cad chuige an gá dúinn eolas a bheith againn?

Cad chuige a bhfuil ga le leabhar eile faoi Michael Collins? Cad chuige a bhfuil an ghné áirithe seo dá scéal mar fhócas leabhair?

Is duine é Michael Collins atá in inmhe daoine a spreagadh fud fad an domhain. Tá ceachtanna suntasacha le fáil ag gach náisiún mar gheall ar a choimhlintí, buanna agus tragóidí agus iad a bhí ag Éirinn chomh maith.

Is é ábhar a bháis mistéirigh a ghnóthaigh níos mó na leabhar amháin roimhe seo. Ach fós féin tá go leor ceisteanna gan freagra: nó gan freagraí sásúla. Agus ó thaobh an fhiosrúcháin a rinneadh tá sé lochtach go mór. Is fiú níos mó airde a thabhairt don díospóireacht mar a sheasann sé anois. Tá sé breis is tríocha bliain ó foilsíodh an leabhar deireanach a bhí dírithe air. Tá sé breis is fiche bliain ó bhí comóradh a bhreithe ann I 1990 a chuir tús le hathbheochan úr le staidéar ar a shaol. Nocht an athbheochan seo saibhreas iontach taighde agus anailíse.

Agus fós táthar ann a dhéanann díspeagadh ar fhiosrúchán den sórt seo. Maíonn cuid acu gur ag tógáil taibhsí ó aimsir chianda atá ann, ag tógáil ceisteanna atá caite srl. Ach is fada ó chaite atá na saincheisteanna a bhaineann le críoch Michael Collins.

Is mar gheall ar Collins agus saol a linne go bhfuil Poblacht na hÉireann, sé chontae is fiche ann chomh maith leis an stáitín, Tuaisceart Éireann a bhfuil sé chontae ann agus a gcuid struchtúr institiúideach chomh maith le cuid mhaith den stair na n-áiteanna. Tá baint acu leis na conspóidí a raibh a bhás mar thoradh orthu agus na mórmheancóga a lean é.

Níl sé fíor le rá gur bhain Collins é féin an troid ar son na saoirse ach ta sé fíor le rá gan Collins go gcaillfeadh Éire an cogadh.  – J Feehan

Tagann na struchtúir chumhachta dúchasacha anuas chugainn ón phointe sárthábhachtach sin. Mar a fheictear i “Réamhrá” an leabhair seo, chuir eilimintí atá diongbháilte in institiúidí náisiúnta, chuir siad bac ar phlé an tréimhse sin ó shin.

Cad é is féidir linn a thuigbheáil ó seo ach go bhfuil rún éigin atá le nochtú fós? Rún éigin a mbeadh tionchar nach beag aige fiú inniu dá nochtfaí é. Fírinne éigin ceilte atá chomh cumhachtach sin nár bhain sé a spriocdháta díola amach fós. Tá dreasacht éigin chumhachtach beo fós chun an plé seo a chosc; plé a bheadh pléascach.

Caithfidh meas a bheith ar an teaghlach marthanach agus an dóigh a ndéanann siad iarracht sean fhuathanna a chur ar ceal agus aontas náisiúnta a chur ina n-áit, rud a bhí mar phrióireacht ag Collins féin. Ach cé go meastar in áiteanna go bhfuil a bhás féin ina ábhar iontach conspóideach cruthaíonn seo nach ceist acadúil ná scéal lorgaireachta é (cé gur féidir leis seo a bheith amhlaidh.)

Is ionann náisiún a dhéanann dearmad ar phríomhphointí a staire féin agus duine a bhfuil galar Alzheimer air. Agus féadann sin a bheith ina thinneas sóisialta atá scriosach. Cé go bhfuil sé tábhachtach ó thaobh na réadúlachta, polaitíochta agus mothúchánacha de go stadann daoine de bheith ag argóint faoin am a chuaigh thart tá bás Collins ina ceist ollmhór staire gan fuascailt. Agus fós féin ní bhfuair sé an t-iniúchadh uileghabhálach atá tuillte aici.

How long shall they kill our prophets,
while we stand aside and look?  – Bob Marley

I measc na bpointí achrannacha a chruthaíonn an stair ghoilliúnach seo an cheist is mó le bheith mothúchánach faoi agus mé ag scríobh: in Éirinn nach bhfuil chomh fada imithe ón ghlúin sin chun a aicsin a mheas le cothrom na Féinne.  Taobh thiar de seo tá cosc sóisialta ann ag moladh ról Collins ar eagla ról De Valera a cháineadh. Tá sé béasach, glactar leis, gan tuairimí a nochtadh a chuirfeadh isteach ar dhaoine, go háirithe iad siúd a chaill gaolta, ar mhaithe le hargóintí a bheadh ciméarach.

Iad siúd nach gcuimhníonn a rinneadh tá siad damnaithe chun é a athdhéanamh.

Ní bhíonn an rud nua ann. Tá seo amhlaidh leis na modhanna a úsáidtear le ceannairí a fheallmharú, go háirithe iad a chruthaíonn fórsa láidir as a muintir le haghaidh dínite, cothrom na féinne agus féinchinntiúcháin.

 Leagan Bearla:
The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?

by S M Sigerson
(Leagan leabhair gaielge ag ullmhú.)

Paperback or Kindle edition here:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

All other e-reader formats:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Read reviews:
http://www.rabidreaders.com/2014/12/03/assassination-michael-collins-s-m-sigerson-2/

Nó iarr ar do siopa leabhar áitiúil.

 

The Treaty & Michael Collins

photo of Michael Collins on podium

The peace negotiations, and the Treaty which they produced, are the events which led directly to Michael Collins’ death.

All the streams – economic, political, spiritual, cultural and militant, – met together in the struggle of 1916 – 1921, which has ended in a peace in which the Treaty of Limerick is wiped out by the departure of the British armed forces, and the establishment of an Irish Army in its place … The Union is wiped out by the establishment of a free native parliament, which will be erected on a Constitution expressing the will of the Irish people … With the termination of the Union goes national enslavement if we will it. Complete national freedom is ours and nobody but ourselves can prevent us achieving it.”

“Let us not waste our energies brooding over the more we might have got.  Let us look upon what it is we have got.

Read more:

“The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?”
by S M Sigerson

Paperback or Kindle edition here:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

All other e-reader formats:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Read reviews:
http://www.rabidreaders.com/2014/12/03/assassination-michael-collins-s-m-sigerson-2/

http://goo.gl/sDmWfh

Or ask at your local book shop
photocopy of Treaty signature page

Cén fáth Agus Conas Mar a Thosaigh An Cogadh Cathartha?

 

Forghabháil na gCeithre Chúirt 1922

Forghabháil na gCeithre Chúirt 1922

Sliocht as an leabhar (sa Gaeilge):

Le linn an tsosa cogaidh agus na gcainteanna faoin chonradh lorg na páirtiseáin, a bhain Cogadh na Saoirse, ceannaireacht pholaitiúil ón Dáil. Ní raibh a scoilt i bhfaicsin faoi airm ann roimh bhogadh ar bith ó na baill thofa ach ina dhiaidh sin.

… Is ionann na fachtóirí atá … na heilimintí a chuir an tír I gcontúirt an chogaidh. Mar sin is ionann ionsaí na gCeithre Chúirt agus an fiús, feallmharú Henry Wilson an splanc agus chuir an dá fhachtóir seo an lasair sa bharrach, a mharaigh an oiread sin daoine agus a bhris amach arís ó thuaidh ó 1970í go 1990í.

I measc uaireanta ar fad na cinniúna in Éirinn san 20ú haois is iad an dá chasadh seo is lú a bhfuil staidéar déanta orthu. Ag am scríofa an leabhair seo tá siad go fóill mistéireach, conspóideach.

Léigh seo níos mó:   
“The Assassination of Michael Collins:
What Happened At Béal na mBláth?”
le S M Sigerson

Bogchlúdach nó Kindle anseo:
www.amazon.com/dp/1493784714

Uile eile formáidí rleabhar:
www.smashwords.com/books/view/433954

Leabhair eile a bhfuil leas:

Cogadh na gCarad
le Diarmuid Ó Tuama
http://www.coisceim.ie/cogadh.html

Shopaí leabhar:
http://www.coisceim.ie/Siopai.html

Nó déan iarratas ar siopa leabhar in aice leat!